The Requirements for Spanish Nationality They are vital if you want to do this procedure, and the first step is to know what they are. Together, the necessary documents, the procedure to do so, the associated costs, and how to obtain nationality by residence, among other things, is what we will explain in today’s article.
By obtaining the Spanish nationality you are recognized as a citizen belonging to Spain, with all the rights and obligations that said title entails. The advantages of having Spanish nationality are numerous, among them the unlimited access to Europe and North American countries, without the need for a visa.
What are the Requirements for Spanish Nationality?
You can purchase the Spanish nationality in different ways, depending on various factors such as your ancestry and the length of residence you have been in the country. Be that as it may, here we will explain what the requirements are so that you can be a viable candidate to obtain nationality, and also how you could lose it.
Let’s see what are the Requirements for Spanish Nationality,
- Being born in the country, either with a Spanish father or mother, or that one is a foreigner but the other was born in Spain. Likewise, if both parents lack any nationality, if you were born in Spanish territory without apparent parents, you can also have Spanish nationality. Would you be spanish from origin.
- Be adopted or adopted by a Spaniard. In the case of being of legal age, you would have two years after the adoption was legalized to opt for nationality. Would you be spanish from origin.
- Having been in the custody of a Spaniard. In this case, you can apply for nationality up to 18 years of age, which is when you become emancipated. It’s about nationality by option, as well as the next two that we will explain to you.
- Another option to obtain nationality is that one of your parents is Spanish and was born in the country.
- If you determine who your parents are after coming of age, you can also choose nationality.
- An extraordinary case, having lived my whole life as a Spaniard, under the rights and obligations of one, but without actually being it and without prior knowledge that it was not. In this case, you will obtain Spanish nationality automatically.
- The nationality granted under Royal decree, but this option is for exceptional cases.
- Finally, have resided in Spanish territory for 10 consecutive years, legally and prior to the request. Fewer years may be required in special cases, such as:
- Have refugee status, in which case they would be 5 years.
- Have the nationality of Ibero-American countries or be of Sephardic origin, for which only 2 years.
- To have been born in Spain; be under a Spanish legal guardian, either by guardianship or foster care, of a Spaniard for two consecutive years; be married to a Spaniard without legal or de facto separation; be a widower of a Spaniard; have Spanish parents or grandparents. In such cases, it is reduced to 12 months.
In summary, you can basically apply for nationality – under these terms – if you were born in Spain, if you have a legal relationship with a Spaniard, by residence or if you have a consanguinity relationship up to the second degree.
How is the Procedure to Obtain Spanish Nationality?
The procedure to obtain Spanish nationality it will depend on the origin of your right to obtain it. That is, if it is a nationality by option, you may be in another country, in which case you must do so at the consulate of Spain in your country.
For this you must collect certain documents and attend the previously scheduled appointment. In the event that you are in the country, you can apply at the Civil Registry closest to you.
So you basically have two ways to do it: directly in Spain or in your current place of residenceto. However, you must bear in mind that after reaching the age of majority, it is mandatory to do so in Spain. You also have the option of doing it via the internet, but only if it is a nationality by residence.
Finally, we would like to mention you some Benefits that come with Spanish nationality. By having it, you will be able to:
- Travel to more than 100 countries in the world without having a visa.
- Being part of the European Union (EU), you can visit, work and reside in any of the member countries if you wish.
- To be a policeman, to belong to the army or to carry out other tasks exclusively for Spaniards.
- Enjoy free health services, granted by Social Security.
- Vote in the elections held in the country.
Documents Needed to Obtain Spanish Nationality
The documents That they could ask you to apply for Spanish nationality are of vital importance and must be presented when indicated, not before or after. We recommend that you have extra copies in advance just in case.
- Application for Spanish Nationality.
- Birth certificate, duly completed.
- Criminal record certificate, both from Spain and from the country of origin.
- Certificate of residence.
- Evidence that there is economic solvency to reside in Spain, either with an employment contract, etc.
- Birth certificate of the mother or father, if any is Spanish. The same in the case of grandfather or grandmother.
- Copy and original of identification document, either the residence card or the NIE.
- Photocopy of all valid passport.
- Marriage certificate, if applicable.
- Invoice for the payment of the fee, which is currently 102 euros.
- Registration certificate, which is only valid for 90 days.
- Diplomas from the Instituto Cervantes, subsequent presentation of the CCSE exam.
Other documents may be required if necessary. Once you present these in the Civil Registry, a due analysis will be made and it will be concluded if you are valid for citizenship or not.
Nationality by Residence
The nationality by residence It is what the majority of foreigners who emigrate to Spain seek. It is about the acquisition of Spanish nationality after having served a certain time in the country, uninterruptedly, always following the obligations set forth in the Spanish legal norm, and prior to applying for citizenship.
As we have said before, to acquire nationality by residence, it takes a foreigner 10 years to live in the country to be able to process the application, with some exceptions. These are:
- If you are in Spain in refugee status, in which case they would be 5 years. To arrive in the country in this condition, not only must you pass a rigorous procedure, but you must live under certain terms.
- Have the nationality of Ibero-American countries or be of Sephardic origin, for which only 2 years. Some of the Ibero-American countries are: Portugal, Andorra, Chile, Colombia, Equatorial Guinea, Argentina and the Philippines.
- Finally, it is reduced to 1 year in the following cases:
- Having been born in Spain.
- Be under a Spanish legal guardian, either by guardianship or foster care, for two consecutive years.
- Be married to a Spaniard or Spaniard without legal or de facto separation. They must both have been married for at least one year.
- Being a widower of a Spaniard. The only exception is that at the time of death they were already divorced, legally or in fact, in which case the rule would not apply.
- Have Spanish parents or grandparents. The parents may have been born abroad, and not necessarily both must have Spanish ties: one is enough.
- Not having taken the right to nationality by option as it should.
You must process the documents described above, in addition to showing that you have attached yourself to Spanish society. In addition, you must be of legal age or emancipated to apply. If not, you must present yourself with your representative.
You can also submit the application by way of face-to-face or by Internet. Through the Ministry of Justice, you will know exactly how to do it. Remember that the fee is € 102.
Exam Costs to Obtain Nationality
The famous exam to obtain nationality is that of constitutional and sociocultural knowledge of Spain (CCSE), managed by the Instituto Cervantes. If you approve it, you will obtain the necessary certificates to complete the documents in the process of acquiring nationality.
There are 25 questions from various areas: Spanish history, culture, government, legislation, citizen participation, and so on. Knowing about the Constitution of Spain is very important, as is its historical and cultural reality. If you pass the exam, you have up to four (4) years to apply for nationality; otherwise, you will have to request it again.
If you do not approve it, you have two more opportunities to do it, although it cannot take more than a year and a half to present the second one. The cost of this test is € 85.
What Questions Are Asked to Applicants for Spanish Nationality?
The questions that they can do to you cover many areas of knowledge. Let’s look at at least 9 of these questions.
- Five islands of Spain.
- How many official languages are there in the country?
- 3 festive dates in Spain.
- What is the name of the president?
- Name 5 Spanish writers.
- What is the Spanish government system?
- What are the typical dishes of the country?
- Last Spanish writer with the Nobel Prize?
- Who is in charge of teaching the co-official languages?
We hope we have helped you today, good luck!
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